Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes

From the abstracts of these records, we identified 55 articles for examination of full texts

Olubukola Ajala; Patrick English; Jonathan Pinkney

2013

Scholarcy highlights

  • There is good evidence that complex interventions, including dietary changes, can prevent the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes
  • Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were randomized controlled trials carried out in adults with an intervention that lasted $6 mo that compared low- and high-carbohydrate, highprotein, vegetarian and vegan, low-glycemic, high-fiber, and Mediterranean diets with any control diet in people with type 2 diabetes
  • There was no significant difference in weight loss when low-carbohydrate diets were compared with control diets
  • Low-carbohydrate, low-glycemic index, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets reduced Hb A1c by 0.12–0.5% compared with comparison or control diets
  • Low-carbohydrate, low-GI,and Mediterranean diets led to significant improvements in the lipid profile with up to a 4–10% increase in HDL, 1–4% reduction in LDL, and 9% reduction in triglycerides
  • The low-carbohydrate diets appeared to provide superior weight loss, glycemic control, and lipid profile compared with low-fat diets and, in one of 2 studies, was superior to the low-GI diet for all 3 variables
  • The studies that compared a diet high in carbohydrates to one high in MUFAs and high-fiber with low-fat diets showed no significant differences in weight, glycemic control, and lipid profile

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