High-protein, reduced-carbohydrate weight-loss diets promote metabolite profiles likely to be detrimental to colonic health

Design: We provided 17 obese men with a defined weight-maintenance diet for 7 d followed by 4 wk each of a high-protein and moderate-carbohydrate diet and a high-protein and low-carbohydrate diet in a crossover design

Wendy R Russell; Silvia W Gratz; Sylvia H Duncan; Grietje Holtrop; Jennifer Ince; Lorraine Scobbie; Garry Duncan; Alexandra M Johnstone; Gerald E Lobley; R John Wallace; Garry G Duthie; Harry J Flint


Scholarcy highlights

  • High-protein and low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to contribute to satiety and can help overweight people achieve weight loss
  • Total carbohydrate intake was reduced to 48% and 7% of the maintenance intake for the high-protein and moderate-carbohydrate and high-protein and low-carbohydrate diets, respectively, and this was associated with a lower starch intake
  • nitroso compounds were detected in all fecal water samples, and concentrations increased 3.6-fold with the HPMC diet and 5.4-fold with the HPLC diet compared with those with the maintenance diet
  • 1 M, maintenance diet; HPLC, high-protein and low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet; HPMC, high-protein and moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet; SED, SE of difference; Not detected, the compound was absent in all 8 samples
  • Despite having only 60% of the Nonstarch polysaccharide fiber and 50% of the total carbohydrates of the maintenance diet, the HPMC weight-loss diet gave only a slight, nonsignificant decrease in total short-chain fatty acid and butyrate, there was a significant reduction in the propionate proportion
  • This study demonstrated that high-protein, reduced-carbohydrate weight-loss diets had major consequences for gut metabolites implicated in colonic health, it was not possible to quantify any increase in colorectal risk presented by these diets because this would depend on many other factors

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