How Changes in the Nutritional Landscape Shape Gut Immunometabolism

While this study focused on the medium-chain fatty acid lauric acid, how other fatty acids, unsaturated versus saturated fatty acids, might affect gut immunity remains unknown

Jian Tan; Duan Ni; Rosilene V. Ribeiro; Gabriela V. Pinget; Laurence Macia

2021

Scholarcy highlights

  • Animal diets are comprised of a complex mixture of macro- and micro-nutrients, which provide a vital source of energy or act as catalytic cofactors necessary to maintain cellular function
  • While this study focused on the direct impact of aryl hydrocarbon receptor on tumor cells, the differential effect of AhR ligands on the Treg/Th17 balance depending on the dietary context cannot be excluded
  • While this study shows that butyrate increases oxidative phosphorylation and lipid metabolism in vitro, this was shown in bone marrow-derived macrophages and whether butyrate has these effects in colonic macrophages is unknown
  • While this study shows that neither GPR41 nor GPR43 are behind the effects of short-chain fatty acids on T cell differentiation, another study has shown that SCFA, propionate, induced colonic Treg in a GPR41 dependent manner
  • The intestinal immune system must adapt to a broad range of challenges to maintain homeostasis and health
  • As emphasized throughout this review, the status and phenotype of an immune cell is linked to different metabolic pathways depending on its specific energetic and anabolic requirements, which may be regulated by substrate availability
  • Both dietary components and bacterial metabolites are substrates that can activate different metabolic pathways to influence the differentiation and activity of gut immune cells affecting gut homeostasis and overall health

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