The Emerging Frontiers and Applications of High-Resolution 3D Printing

We present a review on the principles and the recent advances of high-resolution 3D printing techniques, including two-photon polymerization, projection microstereoLithography, direct ink writing and electrohydrodynamic printing

Mao Mao


Scholarcy highlights

  • There are growing demands for the fabrication of complex micro/nanoscale three-dimensional structures in various areas including novel materials, electronics, biomedical engineering, micro fuel cell, and microfluidics
  • We summarize the recent progress of novel high-resolution 3D printing techniques including two-photon polymerization, PμSL, direct ink writing and electrohydrodynamic printing
  • The ability to produce arbitrary 3D structures with high resolution make TPP appealing for the fabrication of drug-delivery devices, implantable microelectromechanical systems and scaffolds for tissue engineering
  • With a high aspect ratio, the electrical performance could be significantly increased while the overall optoelectronic performance still exceeded conventional ITO materials
  • A wide variety of materials could be printed precisely and programmably to generate functional 3D objects with predesigned micro/nanoscale structures and compositional gradients. Their applications in industry are still challenging owing to their limited production efficiency, high costs, and inconstancy
  • Many high-resolution 3D printing techniques can only be utilized in scientific research, especially for TPP which need very expensive proprietary equipment and consumable materials
  • The huge demand of vital organs such as heart, liver and kidney still cannot be satisfied, while there is still a long way to go for the practical clinical applications

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