What We Know So Far about the Metabolite-Mediated Microbiota-Intestinal Immunity Dialogue and How to Hear the Sound of This Crosstalk

We systematically review the role of soluble and membrane-bound microbial metabolites in modulating host immunity in the gut, and of immune cells-derived metabolites affecting the microbiota, while discussing evidence of the bidirectional impact of this crosstalk

Clément Caffaratti; Caroline Plazy; Geoffroy Mery; Abdoul-Razak Tidjani; Federica Fiorini; Sarah Thiroux; Bertrand Toussaint; Dalil Hannani; Audrey Le Gouellec

2021

Scholarcy highlights

  • The human body is in a complex equilibrium with its microbial flora, and their synergistic interactions have been and still are the object of intense investigation
  • Microbiota-derived metabolites have been identified as components of the human metabolome ; some of these are recognized by immune cells via membrane or nuclear receptors and trigger a cascade of events leading to the maintenance of tolerance in the gut or the activation of antimicrobial strategies
  • Levy et al reported that exogenous spermine significantly reduces the activation of NLRP6 inflammasome in intestinal epithelial cells and subsequent release of IL-18, a cytokine that promotes the production of antimicrobial peptides, an important element involved in gut microbiota modulation
  • This review provided a state-of-the-art description of the metabolites playing a major role in the crosstalk between gut microbiota and immune system
  • Evidence of the bidirectional impact of this crosstalk has been reviewed to contribute to a deeper understanding of the host-microorganism relationships, with a specific focus on the correlation between dysbiosis, microbial-based dysmetabolism, and pathogenesis
  • Extensive this review is, we should consider that 117 known microbial metabolites detected in fecal samples are present on the HMDB website
  • This suggests that we are at the dawn of the discovery of molecules that can have an impact on human health: Being part of this story is both exciting and challenging

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