Mini-Review on Lipofuscin and Aging: Focusing on The Molecular Interface, The Biological Recycling Mechanism, Oxidative Stress, and The Gut-Brain Axis Functionality

We revealed that common mechanisms in the mammalian brain in distress, through aging and neurodegeneration, are mainly through hypoanabolism, or a reduction in RNA and protein synthesis, coupled with hypercatabolism, leading to an increase in oxidative stress—lipid peroxidation protein insolubilizing with waste-trash products accumulating, such as ceroid lipofuscin

Ovidiu-Dumitru Ilie; Alin Ciobica; Sorin Riga; Nitasha Dhunna; Jack McKenna; Ioannis Mavroudis; Bogdan Doroftei; Adela-Magdalena Ciobanu; Dan Riga

2020

Scholarcy highlights

  • Academy of Romanian Scientists, Splaiul Independentei, no. 54, sector 5, 050094 Bucharest, Romania; Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Pinderfields Hospital, Wakefield WF1 4DG, UK; Laboratory of Neuropathology and Electron Microscopy, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
  • We revealed that common mechanisms in the mammalian brain in distress, through aging and neurodegeneration, are mainly through hypoanabolism, or a reduction in RNA and protein synthesis, coupled with hypercatabolism, leading to an increase in oxidative stress—lipid peroxidation protein insolubilizing with waste-trash products accumulating, such as ceroid lipofuscin
  • In cases of stress or damage, there is a large influx of superoxides, above normal levels, into cells, which increases the production of specific radicals and contributes to the exacerbation of lipofuscinogenesis
  • It can be concluded that lipofuscin influences the optimum functionality of recycling homeostatic physiology
  • It is negatively associated with longevity, and it is implicated in various diseases, but at the same time, fragments of mitochondria that have not been completely degraded accumulate within lysosomes and promote abnormal longevity of aged cells by exacerbating
  • Bifidobacterium species and Escitalopram reduced anxiety, with no significant differences in corticosterone levels between groups
  • Besides reactive oxygen species generation and irrespective of the status of organism, many other hazardous stressors promote the accumulation of insults at the DNA level that subsequently influence the cell cycle
  • These stressors are age-dependent, and they perpetually accumulate, invoking a rupture of the intestinal epithelium and accelerating other host systems and organs, which could result in the development of a neurological disorder, due to a disturbance along the gut–brain axis and HPA axes

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