Airway Redox Homeostasis and Inflammation Gone Awry: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Emerging Therapeutics in Respiratory Pathology

We review our understanding of the key role of oxidative stress and inflammation in respiratory pathology, and extensively report current and future trends in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory treatments focusing on the following major acute and chronic lung diseases: acute lung injury/respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and cystic fibrosis

Javier Checa; Josep M. Aran

2020

Scholarcy highlights

  • Due to its continuously exposed surface to the external environment, the lung exhibits a formidable defense system constituted by a high number of interacting mechanisms
  • Whether or not the external and potentially harmful particles overcome these mechanisms, the humoral factors come into play, including bactericidal and antiviral secretions, and cellular factors of the innate and adaptive immune system
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly initiated by inhalation of cigarette smoke, which induces oxidative damage to lung epithelial cells, leading to the development of a chronic persistent inflammatory response from the peripheral airways to the lung parenchyma
  • Reslizumab decreased blood, sputum, and airway eosinophils and, more recently, reduced systemic corticosteroid dosing nearly 75%
  • Therapeutic potential of selenium-derived compounds may derive from their significant activity as inducers of phase II enzymes such as quinone reductase and GSH-S-transferase, increasing the capacity to metabolize/detoxify endobiotics generated during oxidative stress and inflammation
  • The use of corticosteroids has become commonplace as anti-inflammatory treatment, with limited efficacy and relevant side effects
  • By gaining a better understanding of lung pathophysiology at the molecular level using new emerging technologies, the achievement of better outcomes in patients with respiratory pathologies will become a reality

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