Mitigation of Salinity Stress in Plants by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Current Understanding and New Challenges

Worldwide, soil salinity is becoming a significant problem as it is encountered in all climates

Heikham Evelin; Thokchom Sarda Devi; Samta Gupta; Rupam Kapoor

2019

Scholarcy highlights

  • Worldwide, soil salinity is becoming a significant problem as it is encountered in all climates
  • Several studies have reported that Mg2+ concentration in plants decreases under salt stress conditions
  • Better water status in M plants may be explicated by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulated expression of aquaporin genes present in leaves and roots of salt stressed plants
  • A decline in the activity of photosynthetic pigment synthesizing enzymes is another way by which salt stress affects photosynthesis resulting in decreased concentration of photosynthetic pigments
  • arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis combats the negative effects of salt stress on photosynthesis in following ways – improved water status in M plants results in maintaining larger leaf area and higher stomatal conductance, and better assimilation of CO2
  • Up regulation of gene expression may not always translate to increased RuBisCO activity due to delay in protein translation after gene transcription; AM symbiosis empowers host plants to maintain the integrity of PSII by its prompt action to repair salt-induced degradation of D1 and D2 proteins
  • Directing future arbuscular mycorrhiza-salinity research to understand the above-mentioned challenges will immensely improve our understanding of the mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitated salinity tolerance in host plants in order to obtain maximum benefit from AM symbiosis under salinity stress

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