More than Just a Simple Cardiac Envelope; Cellular Contributions of the Epicardium

We provide a state-of-the-art review on the developmental process leading to the formation of the epicardium, the distinct pathways controlling epicardial precursor cell specification and determination and current evidences on the regenerative potential of the epicardium to heal the injured heart

Angel Dueñas; Amelia E. Aranega; Diego Franco

2017

Scholarcy highlights

  • Specialty section: This article was submitted to Signaling, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental
  • We provide a state-of-the-art review on the developmental process leading to the formation of the epicardium, the distinct pathways controlling epicardial precursor cell specification and determination and current evidences on the regenerative potential of the epicardium to heal the injured heart
  • The primitive heart tube is formed from cardiogenic mesoderm of the cardiac crescents, i.e., first heart field, while anterior and venous poles are derived from a subsequent subset of cardiogenic cells located medial to the cardiac crescents, dubbed second heart field
  • Cellular Contributions of the Epicardium course the adult epicardial lining. In this manuscript we will provide a state-of-the-art review on the developmental process leading to the formation of the PE/epicardium, the signaling pathways providing cell specification and fate determination to those epicardial precursor cells including the upcoming role of non-coding RNAs, and current evidences on the regenerative role of the epicardium as to heal the injured heart
  • PDGFRβ is important for epicardial migration and for the development of coronary vascular smooth muscle cells, retinoic acid and Vascular endothelial growth factor primes endothelial vs. smooth muscle differentiation and Fibroblast growth factor signaling, mainly through Fibroblast growth factor 10 and Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b are essential for cardiac fibroblast formation
  • While it is highly acknowledged that the epicardial precursor cells, within the PE, and subsequently the epicardial derived cells will give rise to distinct cardiovascular embryonic cell lineages, it has remained unexplored if the adult epicardium can generate additional cellular subpopulations
  • Overall these studies demonstrate a nascent role for microRNAs in PE/epicardium formation, which might provide novel approaches to activate and prime epicardial cells for cardiac regeneration

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