A comprehensive overview on osteoporosis and its risk factors

These findings showed that the variation in hip fracture incidence between countries was much greater than the differences between genders within a country.16

Farkhondeh Pouresmaeili

2018

Scholarcy highlights

  • Osteoporosis is a skeletal characterized by decreased bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in less bone tension and strength and increased risk of fragility fracture
  • T-score is explained as the number of SDs which fall below the young adult mean value in osteoporosis, and z score is the expected bone mineral density for the individual’s age and sex
  • Bone mass starts decreasing among men and women in their 40s, leading to increased risk of fragility fractures
  • Chronic glucocorticoid use, hypogonadism, diabetes, dementia and Rheumatoid arthritis were discussed as secondary causes of osteoporosis in the current review
  • Resistance exercise training induces more effective favorable changes in BMD status than aerobic exercise training in postmenopausal women. These findings are consistent with a previous study which showed that resistance exercise had a significant protective influence on several changes associated with loss of BMD, unfavorable changes in serum and urinary bone markers and hypercalciuria
  • Resistance exercise training induces more effective favorable changes in bone mineral density status than aerobic exercise training in postmenopausal women. These findings are consistent with a previous study which showed that resistance exercise had a significant protective influence on several changes associated with loss of BMD, unfavorable changes in serum and urinary bone markers and hypercalciuria. A 10% increase in peak bone mass was predicted to delay the development of osteoporosis by 13 years and reduce the risk of fragility fractures after menopause by 50%.245 Adequate daily calcium and vitamin D is required to maximize bone mass and for the subsequent maintenance of bone health. The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends that postmenopausal women should consume at least 1,200 mg per day of calcium and 800–1,000 international units of vitamin D per day. With an unhealthy diet, calcium and vitamin D supplementations may be needed

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