Subtle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity differences in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various functional groups

We evaluated SPIONs with diameters of approximately 10 nm and 100∼150 nm, containing different surface functional groups

Dong-Wook Han


Scholarcy highlights

  • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have offered attractive possibilities for the improvement of site-specific drug delivery to specific cells, ­tissues, or even organs as well as in the enhancement of magnetic resonance imaging contrast, hyperthermia treatments, and cell and tissue targeting. In particular, current advanced techniques in drug targeting use delicate surface modifications for the conjugation of antiangiogenic and anticancer drugs. SPIONs have the advantage of easy transportation in vivo to the desired site by an external electricalPowered by TCPDF submit your manuscript | Dovepress Journal of Nanomedicine 2011:6 3219–3231Dovepress magnetic field
  • Even though SPIONs have already been commercialized in clinical applications, many controversial reports ­regarding the toxicity of nanoscale materials have been reported, and patient anxiety is still high due to the early adoption of advanced biomedical technologies; an in-depth study on the nanotoxicity of magnetic particles as a drugcarrier system is required
  • The core SPIONs were mostly similar in size, because the nucleation and growth conditions of nanoparticle synthesis were identical. ­Following this, a surface modification process was carried out using various functional groups, resulting in the formation of a single layer of functional groups on the nanoparticle
  • Our observations suggest that SPION concentration is more critical than any other factor, such as surface modification or size
  • Our results indicate that SPIONs rarely show genotoxicity below 100 ppm, but more careful investigation is required when SPIONs are treated at concentrations above 200 ppm
  • There were no significant differences in cellular viability when comparing the effects of different types of SPIONs at the same dose
  • The integrity of cell membrane was shown to be more severely damaged with intracellular vesicles containing more concentrated SPIONs in the cell exposed to APTMSand T-A-coated SPIONs
  • Noticeable differences in the genotoxicity of different SPIONs, possibly due to variations in size and charge, were observed at low concentrations

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