Endemic bacteriophages: a cautionary tale for evaluation of bacteriophage therapy and other interventions for infection control in animals

In the current manuscript we describe the physiological, genetic and proteomic characteristics of one of these viruses, and comment on the potential impact of endemic phages on evaluation of phage therapy and other interventions for control of bacterial infections

Andrew M Kropinski


Scholarcy highlights

  • One of the most effective targets for control of zoonotic foodborne pathogens in the farm to fork continuum is their elimination in food animals destined for market
  • All three gave an identically sized amplicon upon Polymerase chain reaction analysis using primer pairs directed to the putative tail fibre gene
  • 30.5 kDa 25.9 kDa which is not found in JK06. This finding suggested the presence of an intein, using data on intein structure from InBase at http://www.neb.com/neb/inteins.html showed none of the residues usually associated with intein boundaries was present. This example of ruminants acting as incubators for the enrichment of pathogen-specific bacteriophages resembles the studies from Bangladesh in which humans act as incubators for Vibrio cholerae-specific phages
  • The potential impact of endemic phages on the outcomes of any therapeutic trials would not be identified, an observation that supports the cautionary recommendations for inclusion of phage testing in any in vivo intervention studies
  • The tested strains included reference strains of E. coli O157:H7 phage types common in Canada, two potential non-pathogenic E. coli host strains and six nalidixic acid resistant strains of E. coli O157:H7 planned for used for multiple strain challenge studies
  • Protein identification was achieved by Mascot database search with the masses of either single mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting or MS/MS fragments based on the NCBI nonredundant database and the in-house Escherichia coli O157:H7 phage Rogue1 database
  • Protein sequence identification of Rogue1 phage by mass spectrometry/MS measurements of the peptides and database search

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