Nanotechnology Approaches to Modulate Immune Responses to Cell-based Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes

Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, 1275 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA Email: cstabler@bme.ufl.edu we review the applications of nanotechnology in immunoisolation, bioactive functionalization, and therapeutic nanoparticle delivery for islet transplantation

Sydney C. Wiggins

2019

Scholarcy highlights

  • Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the selective destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans
  • In vivo allogeneic kidney capsule transplant studies examining the immunoprotective effect of PEGylated pancreatic islets quantified extended graft function and mitigation of immune cell infiltration when fully major histocompatibility complexes mismatched allogeneic islets were implanted within chemically induced diabetic mice; long-term graft viability was not durable or complete
  • Innovative approaches that address islet donor scarcity, requisite systemic immunosuppression, and the poor engraftment associated with clinical islet transplantation would result in a profound impact in T1D therapy
  • The challenge presented with islet PEGylation is to develop a nanoencapsulation platform that both maintains membrane integrity and is durable despite membrane turnover
  • Steric immunoprotection is a promising strategy to expand the feasibility of alternative beta-cell sources, such as xenografts and stem cell-derived beta-cells
  • Larger animal studies are needed to fully evaluate the potential of nanoscale encapsulation as a primary or adjunct immunomodulatory agent

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