Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors

We present mortality rates in detail only for cigarette smokers who had not regularly smoked tobacco in other forms and have grouped the remaining smokers together as "other current smokers" or "other former smokers."

R Doll

2011

Scholarcy highlights

  • It has long been recognised that alcohol can cause death acutely, from poisoning, accidents, or violence, and that long term use can increase the incidence of cirrhosis and of certain types of cancer
  • At the end of October 1951, questionnaires were study, and of other studies at that time, substantially sent to all the men and women whose names were on underestimated the hazards of long term use of the British medical register and who resided in the tobacco
  • Imperial Cancer Research cigarettte smokers will eventually be killed by their their smoking habits, and replies sufficiently complete
  • Among 12322 and rectal cancer are combined, the association with doctors who replied, the proportion who drank 42 smoking is still significant, but no longer units or more per week increased progressively from 2% in those who colorectal cancer and smoking that has been inflated by had never smoked regularly to 20% in men the play of chance, for rectal cancer
  • It is easy enough to understand why the mortality in non-smokers should have improved, but why has it not done so in cigarette smokers, who have generally experienced the same benefits of prevention and therapeutic medicine and have had the added advantage of the switch to cigarettes delivering low tar? The change in the type of cigarette would have had only a moderate effect on the overall hazards of smoking, for it should have reduced the hazard of lung cancer' it may well have had little effect on mortality from the other main diseases caused by tobacco, those that depend on deep inhalation, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and ischaemic heart disease
  • About three units ofalcohol a day, progressively greater levels of consumption are associated with progressively higher all cause mortality

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