Influence of food structure on dairy protein, lipid and calcium bioavailability: A narrative review of evidence

« This study shows that energy nutrients do not affect the nitrogen absorption but modify the metabolic utilization of dietary protein in the phase of nitrogen gain »

Anthony Fardet

2019

Scholarcy highlights

  • Today there are sufficient scientific evidences to include the matrix effect for defining food health potential, nutrient composition
  • On the basis of the in vitro and in vivo studies presented, additional conclusions can be proposed: The comparison of a native milk with a recombined milk shows that the lipolysis rate of milk fat is increased when the fat globules with their membrane are converted into fat globules with superficial layers of casein and serum proteins, and that the rate and degree of lipolysis appears not to be influenced by the initial size of the fat globules; which could be attributed to changes in the physicochemical properties of fat globules during lipid hydrolysis
  • In 2008, the calcium bioavailability from cheeses has been reviewed and some first conclusions were already proposed The actual absorption coefficient of calcium in milk varies in adult between 25 and 35%; 2) Even if it is sometimes difficult to extrapolate to human the results obtained in rats or in vitro, at least it can be seen that calcium is as bioavailable, or even more, in cheeses than in milk; 3) Recent data in humans are few
  • If the phosphopeptides are likely to increase the in vivo absorption of calcium, their presence in a greater proportion in the cheese resulting from the degradation of the proteins during acidification and ripening should be a favorable factor
  • The structure of proteins and the physico-chemical characteristics of lipid droplets play a predominant role in the kinetics of bioavailability of amino acids and fatty acids, respectively
  • After 8 hours the area under curve for plasma nitrogen from amino acids and urea was lower by 50% for egg white compared to cottage cheese, notably between 0-4 days. This was associated with a 50% lower protein conversion in urea
  • Some data can be synthesized: 1) the digestibility of cheese proteins is very high, as for milk and yogurts, i.e., greater than 95%; 2) the kinetics of digestibility of the lipids depend in particular on the ratio of proteins/lipids and the texture of the matrix; 3) in human, the absorption of calcium is probably between 20 and 40% depending on the cheese matrices considered

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