Calcium phosphate nanoparticles primarily induce cell necrosis through lysosomal rupture: the origination of material cytotoxicity

Different from such an understanding, we reveal that the internalized calcium phosphate NPs result in lysosomal ruptures caused by the fast dissolution of CaP under acidic conditions

Zhaoming Liu; Yun Xiao; Wei Chen; Yang Wang; Ben Wang; Guangchuan Wang; Xurong Xu; Ruikang Tang

2014

Scholarcy highlights

  • The application of nanotechnology for in medicine is developing rapidly, thereby increasing human exposure to nanomaterials and significantly so
  • Calcium phosphate phase is biocompatible and biodegradable, many in vitro experiments have demonstrated that its NPs have significant cytotoxicity
  • This toxicity is due to that the released Ca2+ ions from the internalized calcium phosphate NPs within cells initiate apoptosis. Different from such an understanding, we reveal that the internalized CaP NPs result in lysosomal ruptures caused by the fast dissolution of CaP under acidic conditions
  • The suddenly released ions disturb the osmotic pressure balance across the lysosomal membranes destroying the lysosomes, and excessive lysosomal ruptures lead to cell necrosis
  • We find that the necrosis process can be regulated by intracellular environments
  • The lysosomal ruptures can be inhibited by increasing either cytoplasmic osmotic pressure or lysosomal pH. These changes can significantly decrease the cytotoxicity of CaP NPs. It follows that lysosomal rupture prevention is important in the biomedical applications of CaP NPs
  • These changes can significantly decrease the cytotoxicity of calcium phosphate NPs. It follows that lysosomal rupture prevention is important in the biomedical applications of CaP NPs. More generally, the study suggests that control of material degradation in lysosomes and cytoplasm osmotic pressure may improve the biosecurity of nanomaterials, which is of special importance to biomimetic nanomaterials

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