Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene

We review the state of the art, future directions and open questions in Raman spectroscopy of graphene

Andrea C. Ferrari; Denis M. Basko


Scholarcy highlights

  • Graphene is the two-dimensional building block for sp carbon allotropes of every other dimensionality
  • The Raman spectrum of graphite was first recorded more than 40 years ago and, by the time the Raman spectrum of graphene was measured for the first time in 200612, Raman spectroscopy had become one of the most popular techniques for the characterization of disordered and amorphous carbons, fullerenes, nanotubes, diamonds, carbon chains, and poly-conjugated molecules
  • The number of graphene layers in a sample can be determined by elastic light scattering/Rayleigh spectroscopy, but this approach only works for exfoliated samples on optimized substrates and does not provide other structural or electronic information
  • It is able to identify unwanted by-products, structural damage, functional groups and chemical modifications introduced during the preparation, processing or placement of graphene
  • A Raman spectrum is invaluable for quality control, and for comparing samples used by different research groups
  • Raman spectroscopy can distinguish between a hard amorphous carbon, a metallic nanotube or a doped graphene sample
  • These correspond to different frequencies, due to the phonon dispersion around K

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