Sleep and dietary habits in the urban environment: the role of chrono-nutrition

The present paper focuses mainly on the impact of urbanisation on dietary factors and in particular the impact of the timing of eating, called chrono-nutrition(4)

Gerda K. Pot

2017

Scholarcy highlights

  • The proportion of people living in large cities has increased dramatically over past decades and is expected to rise even further; in the twentieth century, the proportion of people living in urban environments has grown from 14 to 50 %(1)
  • The impact of urbanisation on dietary patterns in the present paper is mainly considered in terms of chrono-nutrition, and in particular on the effects of clock time, using an epidemiological approach
  • As the impact of irregularity and meal frequency have been discussed previously, the present paper focuses more on the third aspect of time: clock time
  • Chrono-nutrition could mediate the effects between sleep, diet and urbanisation, and more research is needed to elucidate the importance of chrono-nutrition for metabolic health and assessing chrono-type could be a useful tool
  • The findings presented in this narrative review suggest that sleep and dietary habits are important in the urban environment
  • From the seventeen included studies in the review, eleven studies were used for meta-analyses including data from 496 study participants and showed that energy intake was significantly increased by 1611 kJ/d following partial sleep deprivation compared to control subjects
  • Sleep and dietary habits in the urban environment have changed vastly over past decades and are both important risk factors to consider for public health
  • Studying the impact of the timing of eating, chrono-nutrition, across the lifespan as well as in diverse populations across the world, could shed more light on the underlying mechanism how urbanisation impacts public health

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