A review of polymeric membranes and processes for potable water reuse

The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the role of polymeric membranes in the treatment of wastewater to potable water quality and highlight recent advancements in separation processes

David M. Warsinger; Sudip Chakraborty; Emily W. Tow; Megan H. Plumlee; Christopher Bellona; Savvina Loutatidou; Leila Karimi; Anne M. Mikelonis; Andrea Achilli; Abbas Ghassemi; Lokesh P. Padhye; Shane A. Snyder; Stefano Curcio; Chad D. Vecitis; Hassan A. Arafat; John H. Lienhard


Scholarcy highlights

  • Dwindling water supplies and growing populations have made planned potable reuse an increasingly important component of water resource management for many urban areas around the world
  • Reuse can only be a portion of a water supply portfolio due to intrinsic water losses, reuse of wastewater can augment the supply of water for agriculture, industry, and potable use, even in regions where climate change and cyclical droughts make traditional supplies unreliable
  • While polymeric membranes have been the staple in the suite of membranes used in water treatment applications for all pore ranges and operating modes, ceramic membranes have recently emerged as a broad classification of materials that show significant promise for applications to potable reuse
  • Hollow fibers are more resilient to small particulate fouling than spiral wound membranes for reuse applications, though they still benefit from pre-filtration if suspended solids are present in the feed water
  • Improving public perception of water reuse and navigating resulting regulations To achieve these improvements in potable reuse, polymer membrane technology will be crucial
  • NF rejects more than 95% of divalent ions of the same charge as the NF membrane, whereas the rejection of monovalent ions ranges from approximately 20 to 80%
  • Research aimed at enhancing understanding of fouling mechanisms, transport phenomena in membranes, and health impacts of trace contaminants will further accelerate progress in membrane development for potable reuse

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