Heterogeneity of macrophage activation in fish

We focus on four different activation states of fish macrophages

Maria Forlenza; Inge R. Fink; Geert Raes; Geert F. Wiegertjes

2011

Scholarcy highlights

  • We focus on four different activation states of fish macrophages
  • Stimulation with microbial ligands induces the development of innate activated macrophages whereas classically activated macrophages can be induced by stimulation with LPS in combination with IFN╬│
  • Until in vitro studies identify the effects of putative IL-4 and IL-13 homologues on fish macrophages, arginase enzyme activity remains the most reliable marker for the presence of alternatively activated macrophages in fish
  • Differentially activated macrophages in fish largely resemble the phenotypes of mammalian macrophages
  • The presence of fish-specific ligand recognition by TLRs and of duplicated genes coding for proteins with particular activities, poses additional challenges for the characterization of phenotype-specific gene signatures and cell surface markers

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