Advances in the biosorption of heavy metals

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF BIOSORPTION TECHNOLOGY Biosorption is a process which utilizes inexpensive dead biomass to sequester toxic heavy metals

D Kratochvil

2002

Scholarcy highlights

  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF BIOSORPTION TECHNOLOGY Biosorption is a process which utilizes inexpensive dead biomass to sequester toxic heavy metals
  • The operation commences by loading the sorbent material whereby a metal bearing effluent is passed through the packed-bed and the heavy metals are taken up from the liquid by the biosorbent
  • The regeneration produces small volumes of heavy metal concentrates suitable for conventional metal recovery processes
  • EVALUATION OF EQUILIBRIUM BINDING OF METALS Biosorption process involves a solid phase and a liquid phase containing a dissolved species to be sorbed
  • Due to the higher ‘affinity’ of the sorbent for the sorbate species the latter is attracted into the solid and bound there by different mechanisms. This process takes place until an equilibrium is established between the amount of solid-bound sorbate species and its portion remaining in solution
  • The contribution of other functional groups present in the cells and the cell walls of algae and fungi, such as the strongly acidic sulfate groups R-OSO3- of fucoidan and carrageenan, and the amino groups of chitin R2-NH and chitosan R-NH2, was subject to examinations. The presence of the former was detected in algae Sargassum and Cladophora and the concentration of R-OSO3- groups was estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.3 meq/g. This represented approximately 10% of the overall metal binding sites of these seaweeds
  • Since biosorption is a process whereby the toxic heavy metals are removed in exchange for non-toxic species, the relative positions of protons, heavy metals, and light metals in the affinity series determine the suitability of the ionic forms and regenerants
  • Optimization of the sorption/desorption cycles results in metal-free effluents and small volumes of highly concentrated metal desorbing solutions facilitating a conventional follow-up metal recovery

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