Morphology, composition, production, processing and applications of Chlorella vulgaris: A review

The best conditions applied on C. vulgaris in a batch reactor were 300-350 °C, with 150-200 bar in water or with the presence of an organic acid or heterogeneous catalysts, and the results indicate that bio-oil formation follows the trend lipids > proteins > carbo­ hydrates

Carl Safi; Bachar Zebib; Othmane Merah; Pierre-Yves Pontalier; Carlos Vaca-Garcia

2014

Scholarcy highlights

  • Microalgae have an ancient history that left a footprint 3.4 bil­ lion years aga, when the oldest known microalga, belonging to the group of cyanobacteria, fossilised in rocks of Western Australia
  • The first to consume the blue green microalga were the Aztecs and other Mesoamericans, who used this biomass as an important food source .Nowadays, these microscopie organisms are still consumed as food supplement such as Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their products are used for different purposes like dyes, pharmaceuticals, animal feed, aquaculture and cosmetics
  • For the last two decades, microalgae started to take a new course with increasing applications motivated by the depletion of fossil fuel reserves, the consequent increase in oil prices and the global warming concern.These dramatic thresholds are forcing the world to find global strategies for carbon dioxide mitigation by proposing alternative renewable feedstocks and intensifying researches on third-generation biofuels.In this context, microalgae are regarded nowadays as a promising sustainable energy resource due to their capacity to accumulate large quantities of lipids suitable for biodiesel production that performs much like petroleum fuel .They proved to be a source of products such as proteins, carbohydrates, pigments, vitamins and minerais
  • It reflects a platform that integrates a process to fractionate the components of a biomass to produce multiple products, and a biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in the biomass in order to improve the value derived from each component and generating its own power, which maximises profitability and preserve the environ­ ment C. vulgaris with ail its potential and richness in proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, pigments, minerais and vitamins described previously deserves to be completely refined without forgetting that every operation unit should take into account the stage and preserve the integrity of ail compo­ nents of interest in the downstream process
  • This review reflects a broader image about the potential benefits of C. vulgaris, and gives an insight about the technological advancements already conducted
  • Almost 20% of the total proteins are bound to the cell wall, more than 50% are internai and 30% migrate in and out of the cell
  • Production-processing cost remains too high to compete in the market
  • The remarkable values of C. vulgaris set the ground­ work to additional research for futuristic applications where it will be represented as a strong candidate for tomorrow's bio-industry

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