Membrane Engineering for Green Process Engineering

The SAL-PROC process is recommended for brackish inland brines due to its high water recovery, and for brines with high concentrations of sulfate and potassium because of the high income that commercializing these salts can provide

Francesca Macedonio; Enrico Drioli

2017

Scholarcy highlights

  • In the early 1960s, Loeb and Sourirajan fine-tuned an effective method for significantly increasing the permeation flux of polymeric membranes without significant changes in selectivity
  • The success of reverse osmosis treatment is due to improvements in membrane performance, such as better membranes and materials, increased salt rejection and flux, improved membrane life and process designs; to this process having the lowest energy consumption with respect to thermal processes; to improvements in pre-treatment processes; and to increases in plant capacity
  • Membrane-based technologies are increasingly considered as pre-treatment for RO plants; they provide superior quality performance by enabling higher permeate flux, a greater recovery factor, and a longer membrane lifetime
  • International projects focusing on minimizing these problems have been funded in past years, such as the European research project MEDINA, the Mega-ton Water System project in Japan, and the SEAHERO R&D project in Korea
  • Hybrid systems with MD and pressure-retarded osmosis units have been proposed for the extraction of valuable resources from brine, the minimization of the environmental impact of brine, and the recovery of energy
  • According to previous research, a coupled NF + RO seawater desalination system can be operated at recovery factors that are 10%–12% higher than those of an Seawater reverse osmosis plant using conventional pre-treatment
  • integrated membrane system offer the possibility of a new era in desalination processes: the third generation of desalination installations
  • integrated membrane system can be essential tools for achieving the objectives of zero liquid discharge, total raw materials utilization, and low energy consumption

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