Endocardial and Epicardial Derived FGF Signals Regulate Myocardial Proliferation and Differentiation In Vivo

We show that Fgf9, Fgf16, and Fgf20 are expressed in the endocardium and epicardium and that retinoic acid can induce epicardial expression of Fgf9

Kory J. Lavine; Kai Yu; Andrew C. White; Xiuqin Zhang; Craig Smith; Juha Partanen; David M. Ornitz


Scholarcy highlights

  • Cardiac development begins with the specification of the cardiac fate and subsequent formation of the linear heart tube
  • We present evidence that epicardial and endocardial FGF signaling is essential for myocardial proliferation and differentiation in vivo, acting redundantly through FGFR1 and FGFR2
  • FGF9 Is a Retinoic Acid Inducible Factor Expressed in the Epicardium and Endocardium Epicardial signals are proposed to be key regulators of cardiomyoblast proliferation
  • Ventricular Hypoplasia in Fgf9Ϫ/Ϫ Embryos Since Fgf9 is expressed in the epicardium and retinoic acid signaling regulates Fgf9 expression in epicardial cells, we hypothesized that FGF9 may constitute one of the proposed epicardial derived mitogens induced by RA signaling
  • FGF signals have been implicated in regulating the acquisition and maintenance of the cardiac fate. To test whether this process is dependent on FGFR signaling during midgestation heart development, we examined several markers of cardiac differentiation
  • We show that FGF9, FGF16, and FGF20 signal to the myocardium through FGFR1c and FGFR2c
  • FGFs constitute all or part of the epicardial signal regulating myocardial growth and differentiation

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