Reverse osmosis desalination: A state-of-the-art review

The results showed that addition of ethanol and ethylene glycol significantly improved water flux of the synthesized membranes

Muhammad Qasim; Mohamed Badrelzaman; Noora N. Darwish; Naif A. Darwish; Nidal Hilal

2019

Scholarcy highlights

  • Clean water is a scarce and stressed resource since only a small portion of all the water present on Earth is suitable for direct human use and consumption
  • reverse osmosis processes are characterized with its high reliability, ability to treat wide range of salinities, high water recovery rate as well as salt rejection rate, it is very limited in treating effluents with low suspended solids concentrations which may reduce the efficiency of the process and increase energy consumption due to membrane fouling
  • The results showed that addition of ethanol and ethylene glycol significantly improved water flux of the synthesized membranes
  • Examples include the reported reduction of manganese contained in wastewater using AlCl3 as a coagulant, where the results showed that the initial manganese was reduced by 99.8%
  • Reductions in cost and energy consumption are attributed to many improvements in the technology including improved membrane properties and performance, optimization of process configuration, and the use of energy recovery devices
  • Results have revealed that EC can attain up to 99% removal of total suspended solids TSS and 98% removal of turbidity
  • Improvements are still possible in many areas including pre-treatment, integration with renewable energy, brine management, and development of membranes targeting chlorine resistance, fouling, and specific contaminants

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