Lifestyle factors: are they related to vasomotor symptoms and do they modify the effectiveness or side effects of hormone therapy?

; this study found that adjustment for a single serum measure of estradiol did not explain the observed relation between passive smoke exposure and VMS occurrence

Gail A. Greendale; Ellen B. Gold


Scholarcy highlights

  • This article reviews and summarizes published literature in order to address the following questions: Are lifestyle factors and body mass index related to the occurrence of vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women? Do lifestyle factors or BMI modify the effectiveness or side effects of menopausal hormone therapy? Information was culled from a nonstructured review of English-language literature
  • Rates of vasomotor symptom reporting were low in these studies, potentially limiting the ability to detect an effect of physical activity
  • The scarcity of data that directly address whether lifestyle factors or BMI modify the effects of HT precludes a substantive response to this question at present
  • Available literature suggests that smoking and greater body weight are risk factors for vasomotor symptoms; women with vasomotor symptoms who smoke may benefit from smoking cessation, and women who are heavier than ideal body weight may benefit from weight reduction
  • The hazard ratio for venous thromboembolism among women receiving active treatment versus placebo was 2.06
  • No results have been published on the modifying effect of active smoking or passive smoke exposure on outcomes associated with HT while simultaneously examining differential effects by route or type of HT; the observational studies and trials that have examined the potential interactive effect of smoking have examined only oral combination conjugated equine estrogen and progestin HT
  • It is not directly evident that body mass index modifies the effects of hormone therapy, a few small studies reported that heavier women experience greater serum estradiol levels when transdermal estradiol is administered and that heavier women clear estradiol more slowly than do their lighter counterparts

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