The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): updated norms and psychometric insights into adaptive testing from healthy individuals in Northern Italy

Cognitive screening/first-level tests allow an estimate of global efficiency/functioning by adequately balancing between informativity and practicality of usage

Edoardo Nicolò Aiello; Chiara Gramegna; Antonella Esposito; Valentina Gazzaniga; Stefano Zago; Teresa Difonzo; Ottavia Maddaluno; Ildebrando Appollonio; Nadia Bolognini

2021

Scholarcy highlights

  • Cognitive screening/first-level tests allow an estimate of global efficiency/functioning by adequately balancing between informativity and practicality of usage
  • Age proved to be inversely related to both total and sub-test Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores, whereas a positive association with education was found for all measures: MoCA total and sub-test scores
  • When simultaneously tested, only age and education proved to be significantly predictive of all MoCA measures; MoCA-O was found to be predicted by age only
  • Norms for the Italian MoCA have been provided in previous studies, recent changes in demographic composition and socio-cultural features of Italian population motivated the normative branch of this study
  • The oTL for MoCA-M had not been provided by Santangelo et al because it corresponded to a negative adjusted score
  • Thereupon, practitioners would not be allowed to judge that a score below the MoCA-M iTL falls in the worst 5% of the population, it would be possible to say that 99% of healthy individuals perform above it
  • The present study and its results favor a more informative and flexible use, scoring and interpretation of the Italian Montreal Cognitive Assessment by providing updated and regionspecific normative data at the sub-test level, comprising a proxy cut-off for MoCA-M scores; novel information on sensitivity and discriminative capability of single Italian MoCA items have been provided

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