What if your boss is a woman? Evidence on gender discrimination at the workplace

We show that a female boss is associated with reduced gender discrimination, with positive spillovers mainly on female subordinates, in jobs where female presence is higher and where work organization is more complex

Claudio Lucifora; Daria Vigani


Scholarcy highlights

  • In this paper, we exploit rich cross-country survey data covering 15 European countries over the period 2000–2015 to investigate the relationship between the gender of the immediate supervisor and perceived gender discrimination at the workplace
  • We recoded the variable as a dummy taking value one if the respondent agreed or strongly agreed and zero otherwise
  • Harassment is measured through a dummy variable that takes value 1 if, “over the past 12 months, during the course of work” the individual has been subjected to bullying/harassment or sexual harassment
  • For each model we report the Wald-χ2 test for the joint significance of all predictors
  • Besides the bias due to small samples, recent studies have argued that in rare events data, the biases in probabilities can be meaningful even with big sample sizes and that these biases result in an underestimation of event probabilities
  • The baseline assumption that the inclusion of the unobservables would produce an R-squared of 1 is likely to understate the robustness of results, especially when there is measurement error in the outcome
  • We evaluate whether the bounds of the identified set lie within the confidence interval of \(\widetilde \beta\), especially if the estimated coefficient does not move towards zero when including additional explanatory variables

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