Patterns in Student Learning: Relationships Between Learning Strategies, Conceptions of Learning, and Learning Orientations

The results showed that students who combined self-regulation with deep processing, and students who combined external regulation with stepwise processing achieved good results on this task

Jan D. Vermunt


Scholarcy highlights

  • Until about two decades ago, the majority of student learning research and conceptualizations mainly focussed on cognitive processing strategies and motivation
  • Vermunt and Verloop found, among a group of low achieving university students, several indications of dissonance in their learning patterns: they showed a lack of differentiation within learning strategies, conceptions, and orientations, and a lack of integration between these learning components
  • The studies reviewed in this article have revealed that in the first years of higher education, four clear dimensions in student learning can be discerned: undirected, reproduction-directed, meaning-directed, and application-directed learning patterns
  • The more the context deviates from the first years of higher education, the more the internal structure of the learning patterns differs from this fourdimensional structure
  • The theoretical framework described above can help in designing teaching programs that are more process-oriented in nature and that stimulate students to develop more meaning- and application-directed learning patterns
  • In strongly application-oriented environments, like vocational education and teacher education, all students seem to become more applicationdirected in their learning

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