Toll-Like Receptors in the Mammalian Innate Immune System

This review focuses on mechanisms of Toll-like receptors signaling, known mutations/polymorphisms in genes encoding TLRs and IRAK-4 and their implication for susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases and asthma

Andrei E. Medvedev; Stefanie N. Vogel

2007

Scholarcy highlights

  • Toll-Like Receptors in the Mammalian Innate Immune System
  • Toll-like receptors are evolutionary conserved, germ-line encoded molecules that express an ectodomain with leucine-rich regions, a single transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic region that contains the Toll-IL-1R resistance signaling domain
  • TLRs recognize bacterial and viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns, as well as certain endogenous mammalian “danger signals,” i.e., proteins, oligosaacharides, and nucleic acids released from damaged cells as a consequence of stress, inflammation, and wounding
  • TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and TLR11 preferentially respond to bacterial, yeast, and protozoan PAMPs, while TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 sense viral nucleic acids
  • TLRs exhibit different cellular localization: TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 are expressed on the cell surface, while TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are localized intracellularly in endosomal compartments
  • This review focuses on mechanisms of TLR signaling, known mutations/polymorphisms in genes encoding TLRs and IRAK-4 and their implication for susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases and asthma

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