The focal dystonias: Current views and challenges for future research

In this summary we focus instead on some of the less well-characterized features and important unanswered questions for research

H. A. Jinnah


Scholarcy highlights

  • The dystonias are a group of disorders with many different clinical manifestations, but certain features in common
  • The first theme involves loss of inhibitory processes, which have been found in different types of dystonia and at multiple levels of the neuraxis including the spinal cord, brainstem, and cortex
  • The differences and similarities among adult-onset focal dystonias can be accommodated by a conceptual model that focuses on different biological levels
  • The pathogenesis of dystonia can be viewed as a multi-step process where some original insult triggers a series of abnormalities at the molecular, cellular, anatomical, and physiological levels
  • Many studies identify the basal ganglia as being abnormal in Cervical Dystonia, but different subregions are affected in different studies, occasionally with opposing changes in the same brain region using the same imaging modalities

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