Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of Boron- and Nitrogen-Doped Graphene

In Fig. 1a, we show typical core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data of BG2 along with the elemental mapping by energy loss spectroscopy

L. S. Panchakarla; K. S. Subrahmanyam; S. K. Saha; Achutharao Govindaraj; H. R. Krishnamurthy; U. V. Waghmare; C. N. R. Rao

2009

Scholarcy highlights

  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis showed that the BG1 and BG2 contained 1.2 and 3.1 at% of boron respectively, while the electron energy loss spectroscopy data showed the content of boron in these samples to be 1.0 and 2.4 at% respectively
  • We have examined the Raman spectra of all the BG and NG samples in comparison with the spectrum of the pure graphene sample, prepared by the H2-discharge method
  • Doped graphene samples show low in crystallite sizes compared to undoped graphene samples
  • While the configuration with widely separated N atoms is lower in energy by 25 meV than the one with N at nearest sites in the two planes, this energy difference for B-substitution is rather small. This implies that homogeneous B-substitution may be easier than N-substitution. The origin of this difference can be traced to the structure: B-C bond is about 0.5% longer than the C-C bond while N-C bond is about the same as C-C bond in length, resulting in significant relaxation of the structure of B-doped bilayer dominating its energetics
  • The interplanar separation reduces by almost 2.7% in B-doped bilayer graphene while it remains almost unchanged in N-doped bilayers
  • Having demonstrated that different routes are possible for synthesis of B and N-doped graphene, and based on a consistent agreement between our experiments and calculations, and complementary information derived on the electronic structure, we conclude that B- and N-doped graphene can be synthesized to exhibit p- and n- type semiconducting electronic properties that can be systematically tuned with concentration of B and N, and can be characterized with Raman spectroscopy of the G- and D-bands
  • Second set of nitrogen doped samples was prepared by carrying out arc discharge of graphite electrodes in the presence of H2, He and NH3

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